Mulberry Harbours collection. First and second accruals.
Mulberry - The Return in Triumph. Original typescript, as sent
to the pub1ishers, with the author's autograph manuscript revisions and
insertions, also printer's and editorial markings.  pp. Comprising:
Preliminaries (numbered vi-xi); Text in 17 chapters (pages numbered: 1-17,
17a, 18-66, 66a, 66b, 67-308, 308a, 308b, 308c, 309-379, 379a, 380-391/2,
393-420); Bibliography (pages numbered 421-). Note: The typescript
underwent considerab1e revision, with some extensive deletions. Chapter
I is in the first version, prior to a change from direct to reported speech
requested by Lord Mountbatten. The chapter is based on an interview with
Carbon typescript, uncorrected. Approx. 419 pp. Chapter I is in the first
Chapter 16. Final Adjustments. Original typescript, 9 pp. (numbered 392-
400). Penci1led note on the first page in the author's hand: "Not used".
Complete set of Galley proofs, 84 sheets. Bearing reader's queries and
the author's extensive revisions, including typescript paste-ups on some
11 sheets. Together with another complete set of Galley Proofs, without
revisions or corrections, and a set of block-makers proof pulls of the
illustrations to be used, pasted-up with typescript captions.
Synopsis. Mulberry "the harbour that went to France". Original typescript.
21 pp. Lightly corrected by the author.
Synopsis. The Story of Mulberry. Carbon typescript. 7 pp.
Proposed Invasion Book. Carbon typescript. 2 pp. A list of personalities
to be approached.
Mulberry. Very first rough draft. Original typescript. 8 pp.
Research Material. Original typescript. 5 pp. A description of the Steer-Webster
Note on amendments to text agreed with Lord Mountbatten, and carried through
by the author. Carbon typescript. 1 pp. Stapled to the upper wrapper of
a file containing:
Item I Mulberry - Extracts from the original typescript, made at the request
of Lord Mountbatten. Carbon typescript. 118 pp. The first page bears two
columns of page references made in pencil by Lord Mountbatten.
Item II - Transcript in pencil of tape-recording. Pencilled manuscript.
17 pp. The transcript of a tape-recorded conversation with Lord Mountbatten
in which he asked for some amendments to be made to the typescript of
the book, including the change from direct to reported speech in Chapter
Item III - Mulberry: amendments to the text, as arranged with Lord Mountbatten.
Carbon typescript. 8 pp. A typescript copy of item II.
Item IV - Rewrite of pages 13-18 inclusive, of Mulberry. Carbon typescript,
11 pp. The revised Chapter I, as called for by Lord Mountbatten.
Item V - Miscellaneous papers. Mixed typescript. Approx. 9 pp.
"The Harbour". By A.P. Herbert. Carbon typescript. 2 pp. Bearing printer's
markings. This poem was set on the verso of the contents page in the published
Part II: Colonel V. O. Steer-Webster, OBE, ME, RE (Retd.) papers
Code Names Used in Descriptions of Boxes 2-8
ANNULUS Preliminary code name for BOMBARDON.
BEETLE Steel or reinforced concrete pontoons, used to support WHALE bridge
BIGOT Security clearance classification covering all planning for OVERLORD.
BOMBARDON Floating breakwater, moored outside GOOSEBERRY.
CAMEL See: E.T.
CAMEL BAGInflatable waterproof bag, used to provide additional buoyancy
in damaged BEETLES.
CORNCOB Scuttled vessel in GOOSEBERRY.
CROC Bridge span used in the Hughes Scheme. See: HIPPO.
DUCK D.U.K.W. amphibious vehicle.
GOOSEBERRY Breakwater formed from scuttled vesse15. Later reinforced with
PHOENIX. One GOOSEBERRY was provided for each of the five invasion beaches.
HIPPO Concrete caisson to support CROC bridge spans.
LEVIATHAN Ship used to fill PHOENIX caissons with sand to give them greater
LILO Floating breakwater. Forerunner of BOMBARDON.
MULBERRY Artificial harbours constructed on the coast of Normandy from
materials towed across the Channel.
MULBERRY A = American Harbour at St. Laurent.
MULBERRY B = British Harbour at Arromanches.
PHOENIX Concrete caissons sunk at both MULBERRIES to reinforce the original
GOOSEBERRIES and provide a greater area of sheltered water.
PLANTER Officer i/c sinking of CORNCOBS and PHOENIX.
RHINOPower-driven pontoons on which cargo was brought ashore from ships
moored outside MULBERRIES.
SPUDS Spud Pierheads. The unloading wharves, raised or lowered on spud
legs according to the state of the tide.
SWISS ROLL Floating roadway, developed by DMWD as an alternative to WHALE.
WHALE Flexible steel bridge spans connecting the SPUDS with the shore.
Abbreviations Used in Descriptions of Boxes 2-8
C. B. I. Chief Bridging Instructor, R.E.
C. C. O. Chief, Combined Operations.
C. O. H.Q. Combined Operations Head-Quarters.
C. O. P. P.Combined Operations Pilotage Party. Small groups of men who
made examinations of beaches during unobserved landings on the enemy coastline.
C. O. X. E.Combined Operations Experimental Establishment.
D. M. W. D.Department of Miscellaneous Weapon Development, Admiralty.
Known as the "Wheezers and Dodgers".
D. P. I. W. T.Director[ate] of Ports and Inland Water Transport, War Office,
(Quartermaster General's Dept.).
D. Tn.Directorate of Transportation, War Office. (Quartermaster General's
D. X. O. R.Director[ate] of Experiments for Operational Requirements,
E. T. Erection Tank (also known as a CAMEL). A cylindrical tank used to
support WHALE spans whilst they were being attached to BEETLES.
I. S.T. D.Inter-Service Topographical Department. Based at Oxford, this
unit collated all available information relating to enemy-occupied countries.
L.C.T. Landing craft, tank.
L.S.T. Landing ship, tank.
S.R. F. Shore ramp float.
X. S. A. Scientific and Technical Adviser to D. X. O. R.
Directorate of Transportation Scheme (D.Tn.) and associated material
File containing: 5 folders, 13 typescripts (original, carbon and duplicated),
7 plans and charts and 15 photographs ca. March, 1943-August 1944. The
material in this file covers the development of the Whale, Beetle and
Spud Pierhead designs.
The folders contain numerous blueprint and coloured sketches and mounted
photographs of the prototype designs undergoing trial.
The typescripts include the Proposed Final Specification of Spud Pontoon
(14 August 1943) and a report (5 January 1944) on tests of the Mk. I Whale
bridge spans. The latter is accompanied by photographs of the tests, including
a view of a span " .... twisted through an angle of 40 degrees, each end
being taken through 20 degrees but in opposite directions".
The plans include blueprint sketches of the Floating Bridge Mark II (21
August 1943); General Plan of [Spud] Pontoon [Pierhead] prepared by the
contractors, Lobnitz and Co. Of Renfrew (22 December 1942) and Applications
for Unloading Rolling Stock (High Sided Waggons) 26 July 1943.
Notes on Floating Bridge Equipment, January 1944. Duplicated typescript
and sketches. Approx. 200 pp. stapled into wrappers.
Notes on Floating Bridge Equipment. Supplement No. 1 Notes on Erection
Drill. 24 March 1944. Duplicated typescript and sketches. 28 pp. stapled
into wrappers. Over stamped: Preliminary Print.
Whale Equipment (Erection Data). File containing: 10 typescripts (original,
carbon and duplicated). November, 1943-April, 1944. Includes a carbon
typescript draft of " Supplement No. 1." (See above) and report on activities
at the Cairn Head trial area
Operation Zero. File containing: 2 carbon typescripts and 7 plans and
charts. ca. July-October, 1943. Details of assembly, towing, mooring and
erection trials of Whales and Beetles.
21 Army Group. File containing: 24 typescripts (original, carbon and duplicated)
and 1 chart. September, 1943-May, 1944. Correspondence, reports and draft
orders relating to the towing and erection of both Whale and Phoenix.
Model Towing Trials. Duplicates text, graphs and sketches, 36 pp. gathered
into limp linen folder. n.d. Data relating to experiments with models
of the Directorate of Transportation Scheme equipment.
[National Physical Laboratory Reports]. Carbon typescript. Approx. 97
pp. Together with blueprints and photographs. July, 1943-July, 1944. A
series of highly classified reports on various experiments carried out
models of proposed Mulberry components at the NPL test tanks at Teddington.
The photographs (both mounted and loose) show the equipment before and
during the tests.
Alternative Schemes for Piers for use on Flat Beaches
Hamilton Scheme. File containing: 1 folder, duplicated lists and sketches
(24 pp.) and 6 plans.
Details of the Swiss Roll floating roadway. Designed by R.M. Hamilton
and sponsored by the DMWD, this "true" floating road was based on the
principle of "rolling dynamic buoyancy" and was considered as an alternative
to the D. Tn. Scheme. The trials of the light prototype proved it would
be unsuitable for use by heavy vehicles (especially AFVs) and further
development by Tn. 5 was ruled out. However, a heavier version was later
produced by the Admiralty and they installed it at Mulberry B as their
own pier for bringing ashore men and supplies.
The folder contains 8 mounted photographs of sea trials and sketch of
the Experimental Prototype Layout. Loosely inserted is a report on the
Trials of "Swiss Roll" dated 9 August 1943 (duplicated typescript, 7 pp.).
Hughes Scheme. File containing: 2 folders, 1 typescript and 6 plans.
The scheme proposed by H.I. Hughes was for a slung span cantilever type
pier and was also considered as an alternative to the D. Tn. Scheme.
The folders are identical and each contains 8 mounted photographs of sea
trials and sketch of the Experimental Prototype Layout. The typescript
(3 pp.) Consists of description by Hughes of the General Principles of
the Design. It seems likely that his ideas regarding the Hippo reinforced
concrete caissons used in this scheme were later incorporated in the design
of the Phoenix units.
Phoenix and Bombardon Breakwaters
Sinking and Pumping Data. Duplicated typescript and graphs. 34 pp. stapled
into wrappers. January, 1944. Data relating to the Phoenix caissons.
Phoenix. General Description and Notes on Sinking and Raising. Duplicated
typescript and sketches. 23 pp. stapled into wrappers. April, 1944
Phoenix - Model Towing Trials. Duplicated text, graphs and sketches. 13
pp. gathered into limp linen folder.
Phoenix - Effects on Towing Resistance ... Duplicated text, graphs and
sketches. 5 pp. gathered into limp linen folder. Loosely instead are two
groups of sketches (12 pp.) of various Mks. of Phoenix caissons.
Mulberry "B" Portable Wave Breakers. By Lt.-Col. V.C. Steer-Webster. File
containing original typescript and pencil sketches. 17 pp. October, 1944
[Four carbon typescripts exist within the collection].
Admiralty Department of Miscellaneous Weapon Development (DMWD) Project
No. 78 The Bombardon Artificial Breakwater. File containing: duplicated
typescript. 4 pp., 13 mounted photographs and 1 plan. Describes "... in
brief the leading features of the ... breakwater".
Baker Dolphin. General Description & Operation Instructions. File containing:
1 duplicated typescript, 4 plans and 11 mounted photographs. A device
used in assisting the breathing of ships alongside the Spud Pierheads.
Note: Most of the files pertaining to Miscellaneous Equipment are located
in Box 6.
Information Regarding the Enemy Coast
Notes on Coast And Cliffs Between Ver And Colleville. [by Prof. J.D. Bernal,
FRS]. Original typescript. 10 pp.
Explanatory Note. [by Prof. J.D. Bernal, FRS]. Original typescript. 6
pp. ca. October, 1934.
Port of Arromanches (See Admiralty Chart 2073). Original typescript. 2
pp. Translation of a description in "Portes Martimes de la France" (1856).
Inter-Service Topographical Department (I.S.T.D.) Report C/48. Beach Courseulles
to Arromanches... Original typescript. 4 pp. ca. August, 1943.
Port Capacities N.W. Europe. File containing: 1 typescript (duplicated).
Approx. 67 pp. ca. August, 1943
Arromanches Pre "D" Day (Duplicate Set). Envelope containing: 51 photographs
(including duplicates). Together with: Approx. 28 maps, charts and graphs.
Reproductions of postcards and holiday "snap-shots" used in the preparation
of the maps and models of the D-Day invasion beaches. The maps relate
to the Normandy beaches and the location of both Mulberries. There is
also a mosaic of oblique aerial photographs of the area.
A wooden model of a Phoenix caisson, approx. 6.25" x 2" x 1.75".
A metal model of Kite anchor, approx. 6" in overall length.
Note: See also Box 8 for an additional model.
Photographs. Approximately 770 official photographs (including duplicates)
of every aspect of the Mulberry project. As well as illustrating the various
schemes and pieces of equipment later abandoned as unsuitable (e.g. the
Hughes and Hamilton Schemes) this collection provides an extensive photographic
record of the D.Tn. Scheme and Phoenix. Together with the photographs
in the files described above, they cover the progress of Mulberry from
the very early trials and tests, through prefabrication at various sites
in Great Britain, parking off the south coast of England and the towing
across the Channel, to construction and operation on the Normandy coast.
Security classifications, censor stamps, and War Office identification
numbers appear on the verso of most photographs.
Miscellaneous Equipment, etc.
S.W. Self Propelled Beam Raft. File containing: 1 large plan.
S.W. Landing Ship, Tank (L.S.T. ) Raft. File containing: 2 large plans
and 1 duplicated sketch. Note: Located in Box 3.
S.W. Self Propelled Beam Raft (S. Ramp Float). File containing: 1 large
The three above files all deal with various forms of rafts to be used
in shallow water (hence S.W.) to unload transport from LSTs.
Beach Roadways... Duplicated typescript and illustrations. 21 pp. ca.
January, 1943. A report on trials of various forms of temporary beach
Beach Cranes. File containing: 8 typescripts (original, carbon and duplicated)
and 4 photographs. ca. March, 1942.
E.B.E. Trailer / S.U. Elevating Trailer. File containing: 6 typescripts
(original, carbon and duplicated), approx. 26 photographs, and 1 large
plan. ca. March, 1942.
Sledges. File containing: 6 typescripts and 4 plans. c. June, 1942
The three above files all deal with investigations into various methods
of unloading stores and transport direct onto beaches without the benefit
of piers or landing stages.
Roadless Traction Tracks. File containing: Various publicity material
issued by Messrs. Roadless Traction Ltd. of Hounslow, Middlesex.
Crane Ship (Loco). File containing: Carbon typescript. 2 pp. and 3 plans.
August, 1943. Data relating to floating cranes.
Floating Dock. File containing: 1 typescript (duplicated), 1 plan and
2 folders, ca. August, 1943. Details of a floating dock constructed from
standard pontoon units. The two folders each contain 10 photographs of
the dock under construction and test.
Clapper Pontoons. File containing: 2 typescripts (original and carbon
) and 1 large plan. ca. August, 1943.
General Information. File containing: 14 typescripts (original, carbon
and duplicated), 34 plans and 3 folders. 1942-1944. Details of many aspects
of Mulberry. The typescripts (occasionally duplicating material in other
files) include: Notes on the Design of Terminal Pontoon and Specification
of Spud Pontoon.
No. 1 & 2 Military Port. File containing: 3 typescripts (original and
carbon) and 6 plans ca. February, 1942.
Camp Management. Duplicated typescript. 23 pp. ca. March, 1943
War Establishment (P.F.E.C.). File containing: 2 typescripts (carbon and
The three above files relate to the War Department ports at Cairnryan
and Faslane and other military bases.
Quebec and Washington Reports.
British Joint Mission: Quebec & Washington Conference. File containing:
Duplicated typescript. Approx.108 pp., together with duplicated sketches
and blueprints ca. August, 1943
Reports of committees and sub-committees on all aspects of "Artificial
Harbours for Combined Operation" as submitted to Cossac.
Operational Reports, Histories, etc.
[File A] 18 typescripts (original, carbon and duplicated). 1944-1945
[File B] 30 typescripts ( original, carbon and duplicated). 1944-1945.
[File C] 26 typescripts (original, carbon and duplicated, 14 manuscripts,
6 charts and 1 panoramic photograph.
The above three files contain an extensive collection of operational,
post operational and other reports and histories on the construction and
function of the Mulberries. They include: "Mulberry" - Extracts from Minutes,
"Signals" Part in Mulberry
Operational Aspects of Mulberry "B"
Extracts from Signals Sitreps etc. re Mulberry "B"
Report on Salvage of Phoenix Units
A copy of Capt. J.H. Jellett's very important Technical Report on the
Construction of Arromanches Harbour (Mulberry B).
Other material includes drafts of SHAEF press releases, notes for lectures,
film shows, etc. and several copies of Steer-Webster's address to the
Engineering Institute of Canada in 1946. Finally, there is a draft script
(57 pp. duplicated typescript) for a BBC radio documentary "The Harbour
Called Mulberry" written by Cecil McGivern.
Report on Reconnaissance of Mulberry "A" & "B" 5-10th April, 1945.
Original typescript and duplicated sketches. Approx. 92 pp. with 2 large
maps and 27 mounted photographs, gathered into wrappers. A complete survey
of the Phoenix caissons, prepared to enable D.Tn. to decide on the feasibility
of salvaging any of the undamaged units.
Special Papers "A" & "B" (General). File containing: Approx. 6 typescripts
(original, carbon and duplicated). February - May, 1944. Miscellaneous
[Misc. A ] 7 plans and graphs and 3 mixed typescripts. The plans include
one of the prefabrication area at Richborough, a small port in Kent.
[Misc. B] 13 typescripts (carbon and duplicated).
Copies of personal pages including messages of congratulation on Steer-Webster's
receipt of the O.B.E. for his work on Mulberry.
Octagon. File containing: 26 typescripts (duplicated and carbon).
Papers relating to the Quebec Conference of September, 1944. Apart from
administrative information there are copies of decoded cipher telegrams
passed between Quebec and London on the question of continued security
coverage for the Mulberries.
The Story of Mulberry. (Third Draft) 6th Duplicate. File containing: typescript
(Introduction, 1 page with handwritten notes), drawings, maps and photographs.
A history written jointly by Rear Admiral H. Hickling, Brig. I.L.H. Mackillop
and Steer-Webster. Intended as the official history of the project, but
The Story of the Mulberries, typescript carbon, 62 pp., plus table of contents and appendixes; no author listed.
A cardboard plan-model, comprising 88 pieces, used by Colonel Steer-Webster
in describing the construction and operation of Mulberry to President
C.B. 4096 J(11). I.S.I.S. Report on France. Volume 2: Normandy west of
the Seine. Part I: Geography. May, 1943. Wrappers.
C.B. 4096 J(13). I.S.I.S. Report on France. Volume 2: Normandy west of
the Seine. Part III: Roads. May, 1943. Wrappers.
C.B. 4096 J(15). I.S.I.S. Report on France. Volume 2: Normandy west of
the Seine. Part V (A): Coast, Beaches, and Exits. January, 1943. Wrappers.
C.B. 4096 J(15). I.S.I.S. Report on France. Volume 2: Normandy west of
the Seine. Part VIII (A): Photographs of Part V(A): Coast, Beaches, and
Exits. April, 1943. Wrappers.
C.O.H.Q. Bulletin X/17. The Classification and Testing of Beaches. June,
C.O.H.Q. Bulletin X/43. Appendix G. Crossing Treacherous Beaches in the
Assault: The Roly-Poly. 4 pp. F'cap.
C.O.H.Q. Bulletin X/52. Beach and Mud Roadways. March, 1945. Wrappers.
C.O.H.Q. Bulletin Y/44. Operation Overload: An Assault by an Infantry
Battalion: 6th /7th June 1944. February, 1945. Wrappers.
The Combined Operations Directory (Part I). May, 1943. Wrappers.
Evidence in Camera. Vol. 8, No.9. November 27th , 1944. Wrappers. A special
edition devoted to Mulberry B.
The Structural Engineer. Vol. XXIV, No. 3. March, 1946. Wrappers.
Entirely devoted to "The Mulberry Invasion Harbours, their Design, Preparation
and Installation" by May. W.J. Hodge.
Weekly Naval Notes. Issued by the Naval Intelligence Division, Naval Staff,
Admiralty. Friday, 25th August, 1944. Wrappers. Contains: "Portable Ports
Wood (Cyril Raymond James). "Phoenix". Institution of Civil Engineers,
Wood (Cyril Raymond James). "Reinforced-Concrete Pier Pontoons and Intermediate
Pierhead Pontoons". Institution of Civil Engineers, 1947. Wrappers.
Advance copies of lectures to be given at the Conference on War-Time Engineering
Problems, 4, 5, and 6 June, 1947.
Letters, photographs, official booklets, and plans relating to the construction
and operation of the Mulberry Harbours, collected or addressed to H. V.
Phillips of the Ministry of Supply.