How to Cite

How to Cite



Proper citation in your research assingment distinguishes your contributions from those of other authors and gives them proper credit. Citing your sources enables readers to locate, verify and consult the sources used thereby supporting further study and analysis. If you do not identify the sources that have influenced or appeared in your paper (even if unintentional), you have committed plagiarism, an offence that can lead to penalties such as a failing grade or expulsion from your school. Start to cite properly by learning the whowhatwhere and when of your source!


Who is responsible for writing it? For example:

  • Is there one obvious author or multiple?
  • Is there also an editor?
  • Is there no obvious author or is it credited to anonymous?

Who published it? For example:

  • Who is the publisher provided? This may vary according to source format.


What is your source format? For example:

  • is it a book, journal article or other?
  • Is it an electronic or print journal article?
  • Is your book a monograph or an edited collection?


Where did you find it? For example:

  • Is it print or online?
  • Is it an e-book or print book?
  • Is the article from a database, platform or website?

When dealing with a book

  • Where was it published?


When was it published? For example:

  • When was the book or journal published?
  • Which edition did you consult?
  • When did you access it?

Citation Elements

Citation Elements

There are several different citation styles that you may be required to use during your university career APA, MLA and Chicago (Turabian) being the most common. These citation styles are unique in formatting but you will notice overlap in many of their citation elements. Here are some examples of some of the more common citation types that you may encounter.

Last Name, First Name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or

In text (Last Name, Year of Publication, Page Number)


Bull, D. (1992). Two portraits by Leonardo: "Ginevra de' Benci" and the "Lady with an Ermine". Artibus Et Historiae, 13(25), 67-83. doi:10.2307/1483457

In text: (Bull, 1992, pg. 76)

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

In text: (Last Name Page Number)


Morford, Mark P.O., et al. Classical Mythology. Oxford University Press, 2011.

In text: (Morford 22)

Last Name, First Name. "Chapter or Essay Title." In Book Title, edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, date.

Footnote or Endnote: First Name Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title," in Book Title, ed. First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, date), page.


Kriegel, Lara. “Narrating the Subcontinent in 1851: India at the Crystal Palace.” In The Great Exhibition of 1851, edited by Louise Purbick, 146-178. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Footnote or Endnote: [1] Lara, Kriegel, “Narrating the Subcontinent in 1851: India at the Crystal Palace.” In The Great Exhibition of 1851, ed. Louise Purbick (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), 150.


Using Style Guides

Using Style Guides

Citation styles will overlap in their required citation elements but differ in the formatting of their in text citations and list of references.

Major Style Guide Access





Which style guide should I use?

Your instructor may have a specific style that they would like you to follow or you may be free to choose whichever style you would prefer to use. Regardless of your selected style be consistent in your layout, your in text citations and your list of references.

What should I look for in the Style Guide?

It can be confusing to navigate a style guide for the first time. To make the process easier know the author and format of your source so that you can look them up in the index.


Is there one author?

Multiple authors?

Or maybe an editor?

There will be differences in the formatting for each of these options.


Is your resource print or electronic?

Is it a book or a journal article?

Or maybe a less common source format?

Depending on the source format you will need to include different citation elements.

Finally, remember to look up the rules for both the in text citations and the list of references.

Major Styles

Major Styles

The following guides provide help on how to cite a variety of resources. 

Business Style Guides

Humanities & Social Sciences Citation & Style Guides

  • AAA Style Guide (American Anthropological Association)
    Useful for Anthropology
  • Turabian (Chicago) Style Guide (McMaster University)
    A brief guide based on the 7th edition of Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations (2007). If the type of entry you want to cite is not included, please consult the manual.

Science & Technology Citation & Style Guides

  • AIP Style Manual (American Institute of Physics)
    Useful for: Physics, Science & Technology
  • CSE (CBE) Citation Guide (McGill; PDF format)
    Useful for: many disciplines in the natural sciences, including biology, geology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Based on Scientific Style and Format: the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed., 2006, by the Council of Science Editors (formerly the Council of Biology Editors). If the type of entry you want to cite is not included, please consult the manual in THODE Reference.

General & Multidisciplinary Citation & Style Guides

  • Harvard Style (Anglia Ruskin University)
    Has been adapted to suit many different publication styles covering print and electronic sources and includes how to cite U.K. and E.U. official documents. See also:



Avoiding Plagiarism Checklist  

  • Is each use of someone else’s material noted in your assignment?
  • Did you reference your sources for graphs, statistics and other borrowed data?
  • Are quotations from another persons’ work exact. Did you use quotation marks?
  • If you paraphrased or summarized someone else’s material did you use your own words and sentence structure?
  • Does your works cited include all the sources you referred to in your assignment?

Missing Information

In some cases not all of the recommended publication elements are immediately evident on the work being cited. If you have tried and been unable to locate the element do not include the information instead include as much information as is available so that your reader can still track down your source if necessary. 

DOI's and URL's

A DOI is a unique and permanent ID that provides persistent and reliable access to a digital object such as an online article. If a DOI is available for an online source it should be used in your citation but not every online source is going to have one. For online sources with no DOI specified, use the most direct, complete and stable URL you can find for your citations. 

If both a DOI and stable URL are available for an online source, the DOI is preferred and is noted at the end of the citation. If both a DOI and stable URL are unavailable, include the name of the database or site in your citation.

Sources with No Citation Examples

If you cannot find an example of the type of material you want to cite, and if you have exhausted other resources, then include all of the details in your citation that would help a reader find the source easily. To help with formatting, consult an existing citation example (e.g., books or web pages) and modify the template/form to accommodate your source.

The content in this section of the guide has been adapted from Innis Library's Citation Guide for Business PDF

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