Submitted to the KCSMWG January 25, 2005
by Robin Sakowski Background Reading:
Bailey, R. & Tierney, B. (2002). Information commons redux: Concept, evolution, and The Journal of Academic Librarianship,28 (5), Synthesizes some of the earlier work on KC's from Beagle and others focusing on integrated centres (i.e. integrated with the library). Discusses functional integration at length adapting the Brandeis University reference model for KC s. Brief discussion of training and staff integration issues
Beagle, D. (1999). Conceptualizing an information commons. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 25 (2), 82-89. Briefly discusses the concepts of a KC. Discusses 4 general reference service models: traditional reference service, walk-through consultancy, referral consultancy and case manager reference
Boone, M.D. (2004). The way ahead: Learning cafes in the academic marketplace. Library Hi Tech, 22 (3), 323-327. Brief look at KC s for the 21st century including space, staffing, "triage" reference service, with particular focus on adaptability of the facility through wireless connectivity and laptops.
Boone, M.D. (2003). Monastery to marketplace: A paradigm shift. Library Hi Tech, 21 (3), 358- 366. The philosophy of KC s and the "paradigm shift" going on in academic libraries. Specific discussion of several KC s including Guelph and Indiana University. Also includes stats from ACRL surveys of 177 institutions who had done facilities renovations and offered technologies to users.
Fritch, J.W. & Mandernack, S.B. (2001). The emerging reference paradigm: A vision of reference services in a complex information environment. Library Trends, 50 (2), 286-305. The impact of offering access to technology in the academic library to user expectations and reference service. Shift from traditional reference to instruction and consultancy. Discusses digital reference, consulting, peer mentoring, hiring and training.
MacWhinnie, L.A. (2003). The information commons: The academic library of the future. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 3 (2), 241-257. Retrieved December 15, 2004 from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v003/3.2macwhinnie.pdf Discusses the demands of the patron on academic libraries in general and what that means for KC s. Identifies trained staff as the biggest challenge to the KC. Compares 19 other KC's in table format linking staffing levels and technology offered by the KC. Identifies staffing and training as crucial to the success of the KC.
Nikkel, T. (2003). Implementing the Dalhousie Learning Commons. Feliciter, 4, 212-214. Very brief report on the opening of this facility. Stresses organization and planning, surveying users for feedback, and the problems of integrating IT and reference support for users
North Carolina State University. The Center for Universal Design (1997). Principles of Universal Design. From http://www.design.ncsu.edu:8120/cud/univ_design/princ_overview.htm Accessed April 18, 2005.
Sowards, S.W. (2003). Reference collections, reference services, and the change from text to technology. New Library World, 104 (1187/1188), 135-141. Discusses the change to public services in academic libraries due to technology and user demands for electronic everything. Talks about shaping user expectations, the importance of continuous staff training and forward thinking.
Staffing Models/ Service Models/Philosophies/Types of Questions Asked:
A tale of three libraries. (2004) Library Journal, 129 (19), 12-14. Describes University of Georgia, Athens KC. Multiple service desks, joint library and computing services staff, move from reference related to technical questions at desks and librarians doing more outreach and ILI
Beatty, S. (2003). The information commons: Strategies for integration. In A. Martin & H. Rader (Eds.), Information and IT literacy: Enabling learning in the 21st century (pp. 151-160). London: Facet. Details the implementation of the Information Commons at University of Calgary including service design and delivery. Discusses the U of C focus on student learning outcomes tied to their IC service model.
Berry, J. N (III). (2002). Arizona's new model. Library Journal, 127 (18), 40-42. Major focus on the undergraduate experience, "support specialists" for ILC are primarily librarians, reorganization of the library/ILC management model into a team model, emphasis on service, and what service really is, to the user (primarily undergraduate students).
Cowgill, A., Beam, J. & Wess, L. (2001). Implementing an information commons in a university library. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 27 (6), 432-439. In-depth look at the implementation of the KC at Colorado State University libraries. Includes discussion of staff commitment, training, skills and knowledge needed for the KC, tapping existing staff teams (such as their Reference Services Tech Team) for training and user assistance. KC staffing consists of librarians, library assistants and student workers. IT staff do not have direct contact with users. Focus on staff being available all hours library open and providing immediate answers for technical questions and referrals for reference/research related questions if no staff available
Crockett, C., McDaniel, S. & Remy, M. (2002). Integrating services in the information commons: Toward a holistic library and computing environment. Library Administration and Management, 16 (4), 181-196. Discusses Leavey Library's move to a fully integrated service culture. Details specific strategies in employing, training and supervising all staff (librarians, paraprofessionals and student workers) to handle front-line reference and IT questions and to refer more complex questions to appropriate personnel. Includes a list of core competencies for KC student navigators.
Ferguson, C., Spencer, G. & Metz, T. (2004). Greater than the sum of its parts: The integrated it/library organization. Educause, May/June, 39-46. Specifically discusses combining the reference and IT help desks in an academic setting including administrative aspects, physical aspects and staff /culture aspects. Includes practices from three different institutions.
Foley, M. (2004). Managing a new breed of academic library worker: The student computer assistant. Technical Services Quarterly, 21 (4), 59-69. Practicalities of hiring, training, and supervising student computer assistants in "library computer labs". Service ethic of these student workers is discussed.
Heaton, S., Nozero, V. & Starkweather, W. (2002). Research and information services in Lied Library. Library Hi Tech, 20 (1), 47-57. Implementation of a single service pool from reference, other public services staff, bib services, etc. to provide assistance at service desks at University of Nevada, Las Vegas libraries. Student workers roles in this environment described. "Tiered approach" to reference (Brandeis) and a splitting along lines of specialty (i.e. KC tech staff answer tech questions, librarians and LA staff answer research questions). Details on levels of assistance offered by different staff (similar to Leavey Library at USC). Embedded "rover" aspects in KC librarians. Importance and implementation of training. Issues surrounding new service measures.
Hughes, C.A. (1998). "Facework": A new role for the next generation of library-based information technology centers. Library Hi Tech, 16 (3-4), 27-35. Focuses on the relationship of the KC/technology centre to faculty. Use of graduate student workers. KC librarian outreach to faculty.
McKinstry, J. & McCracken, P. (2002). Combining computing and reference desks in an undergraduate library: A brilliant innovation or a serious mistake? portal: Libraries and the Academy, 2 (3), 391-400. Retrieved December 15, 2004 from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v002/2.3mckinstry.pdf Creation of a separate "help desk" in the KC that handles all tech and research queries and the implementation of an information desk on the first floor of the library to answer directional questions and direct users to the KC help desk on the second floor. Combination of librarians and student workers. Use of name badges with names and titles to help users identify who helped them and the level of help they can expect. Shifting service paradigm from at the reference desk to at the student's side, roving aspects, and chat reference help.
Miller, M. (1998). Anticipating the future: The University of Michigan's Media Union. Library Hi Tech 16 (1), 71-83. Library and technical staff from many service units comprise staff of KC. Stresses the need for total collaboration. Reorganization of library management into task groups including one for staff development. Multiple service points that combine research, technology and circulation. Separate "hotline" office where technical queries via phone and e-mail/chat are handled; also serves as a hotline for staff questions on tech issues. Administrative structure discussed.
Site Specific Web Pages Detailing Staffing/Service Models
IC reference/information/IT staffing model - Fall & spring semesters [weekday]. (2000). Retrieved November 29, 2004 from http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/ilcst/staffmodel2.htm University of Arizona, Tucson KC staffing schedule showing details for levels and types of staff for every hour of the facility's operations.
IC reference/information/IT staffing model - Fall & spring semesters [weekend]. (2000). Retrieved November 29, 2004 from http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/ilcst/ILCstaffingmodelweekend.htm University of Arizona, Tucson KC staffing schedule showing details for levels and types of staff for every hour of the facility's operations.
Information technology FTE contributions to the ILC information commons. (2000). Retrieved November 29, 2004 from http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/ilcst/ilc-itfte.htm Number of hours IT contributes to the KC at University of Arizona, Tucson
Library FTE contributions to the ILC information commons. (2000). Retrieved November 29, 2004 from http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/ilcst/ilc-libraryfte.htm Number of hours Library contributes to the KC at University of Arizona, Tucson.
University of Arizona ILC reference and IT support personnel plan. (2000). Retrieved November 29, 2004 from http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/ilcst/staff&servicedraft.htm University of Arizona, Tucson recommendations for KC support personnel qualifications, number of staff, and primary duties.
Comparisons of KC s in Table Format
Synthesis of site data. (2000). Retrieved November 29, 2004 from http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/ilcst/sitesynthesis2.htm Compares 14 different KC's from across the United States and Canada.
MacWhinnie, L.A. (2003). The information commons: The academic library of the future. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 3 (2), 241-257. Retrieved December 15, 2004 from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v003/3.2macwhinnie.pdf Compares basic services and staffing from 19 different facilities.